Flaws in EPA’s Monitoring and Verification of Carbon Capture Projects

The Environmental Integrity Project examined one central component of carbon capture and sequestration regulation in the U.S.: monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) plans required by the EPA’s Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program. These plans describe the monitoring strategies in place at each site to validate that the carbon dioxide is securely stored underground and is not leaking or migrating in an unexpected manner. If approved by EPA, the plans can also be used to qualify for tax subsidies. However, the 21 plans that EPA approved as of October 31, 2023, are ambiguous and lack key elements to ensure safe and long-term carbon sequestration.